A new study shows a large gender gap on economic policy among the nation’s professional economists, a divide similar to the gender divide found in the general public.
“As a group, we are pro-market” says Ann Mari May, co-author of the study and a University of Nebraska economist. “But women are more likely to accept government regulation and involvement in economic activity than our male colleagues.”
“It’s very puzzling,” says free market economist Veronique de Rugy of the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. “Not a day goes by that I don’t ask myself why there are so few women economists on the free market side.”
A native of France, de Rugy supported government intervention (干预) early in her life but changed her mind after studying economics. “We want many of the same things as liberals — less poverty, more health care — but have radically different ideas on how to achieve it.
Liberal economist Dean Baker, co-founder of the Center for Economic Policy and Research, says, “Male economists have been on the inside of the profession, confirming each other’s anti-regulation views. Women, as outsiders, are more likely to think independently or at least see people outside of the economics profession as forming their peer group,” he says.
The gender balance in economics is changing. One-third of economics doctorates (博士学位) now go to women. “More diversity is needed at the table when public policy is discussed,” May says.
Economists do agree on some things. Female economists agree with men that Europe has too much regulation and that Wal-Mart is good for society. Male economists agree with their female colleagues that military spending is too high.
The genders are most divorced from each other on the question of equality for women. Male economists overwhelmingly think the wage gap between men and women is largely the result of individuals’ skills, experience and voluntary choices. Female economists overwhelmingly disagree by a margin of 4-to-l.
The biggest disagreement: 76% of women say faculty opportunities in economics favor men. Male economists point the opposite way: 80% say women are favored or the process is neutral.
76. What is the finding of the new study?
A. The gender divide is a big concern of the general public.
B. Men and women understand economics quite differently.
C. The gap between male and female economists needs to be closed.
D. Male and female economists disagree widely on economic policy.
77. What does Ann Mari May say about female economists?
A. They are strongly against male domination in the economics profession.
B. They tend to support government intervention in economic activity.
C. They usually play an active role in public policy-making.
D. They are mostly strong advocates of free market economy.
78. What do we learn about economist Veronique de Rugy?
A. She represents most female economists’ standpoint.
B. She devotes herself to eliminating women’s poverty.
C. Her study of economics changed her view on government’s role in economic activities.
D. Her academic background helped her get into the inner circle of the economics profession.
79. What does Ann Mari May imply about public policy-making?
A. More female economists should get involved.
B. It should do justice to female economists’ studies.
C. More attention should be paid to women’s rights.
D. It should aim at sustainable development.
80. On what issue do male and female economists differ most?
A. Government regulation. B. Military spending.
C. Job creation. D. Gender equality.